Dr. Stephen Clipper, along with co-authors Nina Barbieri and Arthur G. Vasquez, considers adolescent gang membership and differences in ethnic identity, esteems, and efficacy in an article first published in the journal Deviant Behavior in June of 2016.

An abstract of the article is below.  The full text of the research is available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01639625.2016.1185870